The Impact of Hypogonadism on Surgical Outcomes Following Primary Urethroplasty: Analysis of a Large Multi-institutional Database

Objective: To compare surgical outcomes among a cohort of eugonadal and hypogonadal patients undergoing primary urethroplasty (UP).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using TriNetX between 2008-2023. Patients who were eugonadal and hypogonadal (symptoms plus testosterone <300 ng/dL) prior to UP were compared. A subgroup analysis of hypogonadal patients was performed to compare those with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) vs TRT-naïve prior to UP. Propensity-score matching was used to adjust for differences in comorbidities. Outcomes were 5-year revision rates and revision-free survival for endoscopic revision and redo UP following primary UP.

Results: We identified 12,556 eugonadal and 488 hypogonadal patients (153 TRT+, 335 TRT-) undergoing UP. Median age at UP and follow-up was 55years and 5years, respectively. After propensity-score matching, we compared 477 eugonadal and 477 hypogonadal patients. Hypogonadal patients had a statistically significantly higher 5-year redo UP rate (11% vs 6%, relative risk [RR] 1.5 [95%CI, 1.2-2.2]; P = .01) when compared to eugonadal patients however there was no difference in 5-year rates of endoscopic revision (11% vs 11%, RR 1.0 [95%CI, 0.7-1.5]; P = 1.0). We observed no difference in 5-year revision-free survival time for endoscopic revision or redo UP between groups. Hypogonadal patients treated with TRT had a significantly higher 5-year redo UP rate (15% vs 7%, RR 1.8 [95%CI, 1.1-3.3]; P = .02) compared to hypogonadal patients that were TRT-naïve prior to UP. There was no difference in rates of endoscopic revision (14% vs 10%, RR 1.3 [95%CI, 0.7-2.4]; P = .2) between subgroups.

Conclusion: Pre-existing hypogonadism may modestly adversely affect surgical outcomes following primary UP based on data from a large, retrospective cohort study.

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Johns Hopkins Medicine